環境資訊中心外電；姜唯 翻譯；林大利 審校；稿源：ENS
其中許多提案目的是納入CITES附錄II 清單、取得貿易許可，確保風險物種貿易的永續性。有些提案欲將瀕危物種標本列入附錄I ，禁止所有商業貿易。也有一些提案提供證據證明族群已經穩定或擴大，可以安全地從附錄I 轉移到附錄II 。
納米比亞的長頸鹿。 拍攝（CC BY-ND 2.0）
多年來，白犀牛角盜獵持續嚴重。儘管史瓦帝尼（以前稱為史瓦濟蘭）的南方白犀牛（Ceratotherium simum simum）已列在附錄II，但有一條註釋禁止犀牛角的國際貿易。史瓦帝尼建議刪除這個註釋，以便出售330公斤的現有犀牛角庫存，接著每年出售20公斤的非致命性採集的犀牛角。
納米比亞建議將南方白犀牛從附錄I 轉移到II ，註釋限出售活體動物和狩獵戰利品，所有其他標本保留在附錄I 。
COP18將再次討論部分關於非洲象的提案。幾十年的象牙盜獵使族群量大減，非洲象於1989年從CITES附錄II轉移到附錄I 。1997年和2000年，CITES發現部分非洲南部的象群健康且管理良好，同意將波札納、納米比亞、南非和辛巴威族群列入附錄II 。1999年和2008年，這些國家的官方所有象牙登記庫存銷售權授予中國和日本。
非洲象， 攝於辛巴威。（CC BY-NC-ND 2.0）
生長在巴基斯坦的北印度玫瑰木， 攝（CC BY-SA 3.0）
今年5月，（IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services）證實，世界各地的物種和生態系正在迅速劣化。物種減少的主要因素之一是直接過度開發，包括非永續或非法狩獵、捕撈和伐木。
CITES to Update Wildlife Trade Rules for 550 Species GENEVA, Switzerland, August 13, 2019 (ENS)
The 183 countries that are Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, CITES, will adopt decisions and resolutions to expand and strengthen the global wildlife trade regime at CITES’ upcoming triennial World Wildlife Conference. The 18th such meeting, informally known as COP18, will be held at Palexpo in Geneva from August 17 to 28.
Governments have submitted to change the levels of protection that CITES provides for species of wild animals and plants that are traded internationally.
In total, some 550 species may be affected by the proposed changes. They include the African elephant, the giraffe, a variety of lizards, geckos and newts, tortoises, sharks, sea cucumbers, Grandidier’s baobab and North Indian rosewood trees.
Many of these proposals seek to ensure that trade in at-risk species remains sustainable by requiring trade permits through a CITES Appendix II listing.
Others recommend banning all commercial trade in specimens of species threatened by extinction by listing them on Appendix I.
Still others aim to provide evidence that a population has stabilized or expanded and can be safely transferred from Appendix I to Appendix II.
CITES’ new Secretary-General, environmental economist of Panama, said, “CITES sets the rules for international trade in wild fauna and flora. It is a powerful tool for ensuring sustainability and responding to the rapid loss of biodiversity – often called the sixth extinction crisis – by preventing and reversing declines in wildlife populations.
“This year’s conference will focus on strengthening existing rules and standards while extending the benefits of the CITES regime to additional plants and animals threatened by human activity,” she said.
COP18 Proposals: Cats, Elephants, Giraffes, Rhinos, Reptiles, Fish and Trees
The big cats of Africa and Asia are under threat from a wide range of pressures, including poaching and illegal trade. COP18 delegates will consider establishing a CITES Big Cats Task Force to strengthen action on conserving these high-profile species in Asia. The conference also has agenda items on Africa’s cheetahs and lions and Latin America’s jaguars.
Populations of the giraffe have declined sharply over the past several decades due to habitat loss and other pressures. The Central African Republic, Chad, Kenya, Mali, Niger and Senegal propose that the giraffe be listed on Appendix II as a precautionary measure to help arrest the species’ ongoing decline.
The white rhinoceros has been heavily poached for its horn for many years. Although the population of southern white rhinos, Ceratotherium simum simum, in Eswatini (formerly known as Swaziland) is listed on Appendix II, an annotation currently prevents international trade in rhino horn. Eswatini proposes removing this annotation so that it can sell an existing stock of 330 kg of rhino horn and then 20 kg per year from non-lethal harvesting.
Namibia proposes transferring its population of southern white rhinos from Appendix I to II with an annotation solely for the sale of live animals and for hunting trophies, with all other specimens to remain on Appendix I.
COP18 will once again consider a number of elephant proposals. The African elephant was moved from CITES Appendix II to CITES Appendix I in 1989 after decades of ivory poaching had greatly reduced many populations. In 1997 and 2000, recognizing that some southern African elephant populations were healthy and well managed, CITES agreed to downlist the populations of Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe to Appendix II. In 1999 and again in 2008, sales of registered stocks of government-owned ivory from these countries were authorized to China and Japan.
Now, Zambia proposes to downlist its elephant population from Appendix I to Appendix II to permit sales of registered ivory stocks to CITES-approved buyers as well as some specified non-ivory trade.
Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe would like to enable trade in registered ivory stocks to CITES-verified partners as well as some specified non-ivory trade. They propose to do this by amending an annotation that, although their elephant populations are listed in Appendix II, currently disallows trade.
To provide objective assessments of trends in elephant poaching and illegal trade in ivory, CITES established the Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) program and the Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS). Their results inform the decisions taken by Parties on elephant conservation and the ivory trade.
Finally on the ivory issue, and in a first for CITES, Proposal 13 calls for listing a long-extinct species. Israel proposes adding the woolly mammoth to Appendix II, citing the so-called “look-alike provision” aimed at preventing the “laundering” or mislabeling of elephant ivory as mammoth ivory.
Twenty of the listing proposals to be presented at COP18 are inspired by concern over the growing appetite of the exotic pet trade for charismatic amphibians and reptiles.
The trend towards applying CITES rules to trade in high-value fish and tree species continues, as do the debates over how best to manage the African elephant populations and what to do with their ivory tusks. Illegal killing of rhinos and the related trade in rhino horn is also high on the agenda.
Delegates also will decide whether musical instruments made of precious wood from trees regulated by the Convention should be exempted from CITES controls.
The Mulanje cedar is the national tree of Malawi. Because its yellow-white timber is highly resistant to fungal rot, insects and decay, it is highly valued. It has been overexploited by illegal loggers. Malawi proposes an Appendix II listing for this cedar.
The proposal on North Indian rosewood is the only one at COP18 recommending that a species be deleted from the CITES appendices. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal propose removing this tree, which is used for timber, furniture, musical instruments and many other purposes, from Appendix II because it is abundant and sustainably harvested.
Governments will evaluate each listing proposal and decide to adopt it by consensus or, if necessary, by vote.
In addition to analyzing the proposals themselves, government representatives can consider the views of the that were formally invited to provide their comments as stakeholders.
The Secretariat itself is tasked with evaluating the proposals for whether they satisfy agreed trade and biological criteria, and reviewing technical and scientific factors.
Strategizing to Halt Rapid Decline in Species
In May, the confirmed that species and ecosystems around the world are in rapid decline. One of the main drivers of species decline is the direct overexploitation of living organisms, including unsustainable or illegal hunting, fishing and logging.
In July, the latest update of the maintained by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, IUCN, shows that overfishing has pushed two families of rays to the brink of extinction while hunting for bushmeat and habitat loss have led to the decline of seven primate species.
The update also reveals further evidence of the perilous state of freshwater fishes globally. This is shown by high numbers of species threatened by the loss of free-flowing rivers, habitat degradation, pollution and invasive species in Japan and Mexico.
In addition to the 56 proposals for amending the CITES Appendices, the COP18 agenda also seeks to adopt a strategy for the coming years and improve the effectiveness of the Convention through agreements on the interpretation and implementation of its provisions.
Along these lines, the CITES Strategic Vision Post-2020 document will be presented for discussion and adoption. The draft vision foresees that “By 2030, all international trade in wild fauna and flora is legal and sustainable, consistent with the long-term conservation of species, and thereby contributing to halting biodiversity loss.”
The Strategic Vision also highlights CITES’ role in contributing to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The success of CITES is based in good part on having a solid legal basis and an effective compliance regime. When there is evidence that a Party may not be fully complying with their obligations under the Convention, CITES provides technical assistance and capacity building to bring the country back into compliance.
If necessary, CITES can also adopt compliance measures which may include a recommendation to suspend all trade in a listed species or even in all CITES-listed species.
Wildlife Crime High on the Agenda
Illegal international trade in wildlife threatens the survival of many wild animals and plants while undermining national economies and the livelihoods of people who rely on the sustainable use of wildlife. The growing involvement of organized crime groups is increasing the complexity of enforcement investigations and the risks faced by enforcement officers such as park rangers.
Among other issues, the conference will address wildlife crime linked to the Internet, the use of forensic applications, corruption, a threat assessment report on wildlife crime in West and Central Africa, and the storage and management of data on illegal trade used to inform decision-making.
Delegates will also focus on capacity building and technical support provided to Parties by the CITES Secretariat, Interpol, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the World Bank and the World Customs Organization under the auspices of the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime.
Some Parties are of the view that trade in non-CITES-listed species should be examined to assess if CITES could play a role in managing such trade.
COP18 will discuss several documents that describe trade-related concerns for species and taxa currently not included in the CITES Appendices. These involve songbirds, amphibians, marine ornamental fish, Bangai cardinal fish and frankincense. The ongoing work under the Convention on rosewoods, eels as well as sharks and rays touches both on listed and non-listed species.
Many “wild” animal and plant species listed under CITES are now bred in captivity or cultivated for trade, but such trade must not be detrimental to the survival of a species in the wild. The conference will consider the broad issue of trade in animal and plant specimens from non-wild sources.
In addition to tackling these ongoing challenges, CITES Parties have generated many success stories. These often involve enabling rural communities to develop income or increase food security through the sustainable use and conservation of wild animals and plants. Examples include the vicuña, the Nile crocodile and the snowdrop flower.
The conference will also consider opportunities to enhance the role of indigenous, local and rural communities in CITES decision-making processes and how to further strengthen collaboration with other biodiversity-related conventions.
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